Forge, Fontenay Abbey, Marmagne, Cote d'Or, France. This Cistercian abbey was founded by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux in 1119, built in the Romanesque style. The abbey itself housed 300 monks from 1200, but was sacked during the French Revolution. The 53m water-powered forge is the oldest metallurgical factory in Europe, dating from 1220. It was recently reconstructed. The monks extracted iron ore from a nearby hill and forged iron tools to sell. The Cistercians were masters of metallurgy and invented the hydraulic hammer on this site.  Here we see the oven, chimney, cupola furnace, bellows, anvil and iron beating trip hammers. Picture by Manuel Cohen

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Forge, Fontenay Abbey, Marmagne, Cote d'Or, France. This Cistercian abbey was founded by Saint Bernard of Clairvaux in 1119, built in the Romanesque style. The abbey itself housed 300 monks from 1200, but was sacked during the French Revolution. The 53m water-powered forge is the oldest metallurgical factory in Europe, dating from 1220. It was recently reconstructed. The monks extracted iron ore from a nearby hill and forged iron tools to sell. The Cistercians were masters of metallurgy and...
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